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Adrienne Rich

Date of birth : 1929-05-16
Date of death : 2012-03-27
Birthplace : Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Nationality : American
Category : Arts and Entertainment
Last modified : 2010-08-27

"Sidelights"

"Adrienne Rich is not just one of America's best feminist poets," wrote Margaret Atwood in Second Words: Selected Critical Prose, "or one of America's best woman poets, she is one of America's best poets." Yet Albert Gelpi observed that Rich's stance in her early poems is far from feminist. In American Poetry since 1960: Some Critical Perspectives, Gelpi noted that in W.H. Auden's foreword to A Change of World, Rich's introductory book of poetry, Auden said her poems "are neatly and modestly dressed, speak quietly but do not mumble, respect their elders but are not cowed by them, and do not tell fibs." "In other words," Gelpi explained, the poems reflect "the stereotype--prim, fussy and schoolmarmish--that has corseted and strait-laced women-poets into 'poetesses' whom men could deprecate with admiration." In Writing Like a Woman, Alicia Ostriker stated: "Rich at this point [was] a cautious good poet in the sense of being a good girl, a quality noted with approval by her early reviewers."

Many critics found in Rich's book Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law: Poems, 1954-1962 the first indication of both the end of Rich's imitative efforts and the beginning of her concern with feminist issues. In the Southwest Review, Willard Spiegelman called Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law "the liminal volume, attempting a journey from one self, world, poetic form, to another." Spiegelman noted that the poem "Roof-walker" articulates Rich's precarious position as a poet balancing between two modes of writing: "exposed, larger than life, / and due to break my neck." Ostriker also commented on the change in Rich's poetry evident in Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law. Calling the collection "Rich's break-through volume," Ostriker noted that the book's title poem "consists of fragmentary and odd-shaped sections instead of stanzas, and has the immediacy and force which Rich did not attempt earlier."

The volume offers the reader a change in the form of Rich's poetry, Ostriker observed. This change, remarked Anne Newman in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, includes "dropping the initial capital letter in each line, increasing enjambment, using speech cadences in place of formal meters, limiting the use of rhyme, and varying stanza length." The content of Rich's poetry also changes. Her work begins to reflect her personal confrontation with what it means to be female in a male-dominated society. In Rich's 1971 essay, "When We Dead Awaken: Writing As Re-vision," quoted by Newman, the poet comments: "In the late fifties I was able to write, for the first time, directly about experiencing myself as a woman--Until then I had tried very hard not to identify myself as a female poet. Over two years I wrote ... Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law; (1958-60), in a longer, looser mode than I'd ever trusted myself with before. It was an extraordinary relief to write that poem."

Rich has been criticized for the harsh depictions of males in her poetry. This is especially true in reviews of Diving into the Wreck: Poems, 1971-1972 and A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981. Ostriker commented on what she calls Rich's "partisanship" and observed: "Men in [Diving into the Wreck] are depicted universally and exclusively as parisitic on women, emotionally threatened by them, brutal ... and undeserving of pity." In Parnassus Helen Vendler noted that the poem "Rape" from Diving into the Wreck, seems to bestow on all men the image of the sadistic rapist portrayed in the work. "This poem," Vendler wrote, "like some others [in the volume], is a deliberate refusal of the modulations of intelligence in favor of ... propaganda." Similarly, in the Voice Literary Supplement, Kathryn Kilgore called A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far "a ritual of man-hatred" while in the London Times Literary Supplement Jay Parini stated that in some of the poems in the volume Rich "willfully misrepresents men, committing the same act of distortions that she complains about elsewhere."

On the other hand, Diving into the Wreck was granted the prestigious National Book Award (Rich, along with Audre Lorde and Alice Walker, declined the award as an individual but accepted it on behalf of women whose voices have been silenced, and donated the cash award to the Sisterhood of Black Single Mothers). The book was praised by many critics. For example, in a Ms. review of the book, Erica Jong noted that Rich handles political issues well in her poetry. "Rich is one of the few poets," Jong stated, "who can deal with political issues in her poems without letting them degenerate into social realism." Focusing on the title poem, Jong also denies that Rich is anti-male. A portion of the poem reads: "And I am here, the mermaid whose dark hair / streams black, the merman in his armored body. / We circle silently / about the wreck. / We dive into the hold. / I am she: I am he." Jong commented: "This stranger-poet-survivor carries 'a book of myths' in which her/his 'names do not appear.' These are the old myths ... that perpetuate the battle between the sexes. Implicit in Rich's image of the androgyne is the idea that we must write new myths, create new definitions of humanity which will not glorify this angry chasm but heal it." A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far received similar if not as abundant praise. For instance, Sara Mandlebaum noted in Ms. that in the volume "the radicalism of [Rich's] vision ... remains strong and invigorating: the writing as lyrical ... and moving as ever--and even more honest."

Rich's prose has caused as much controversy as her poetry. Newman discussed the reception of Of Woman Born: Motherhood As Experience and Institution, Rich's study of the concept of motherhood. "Some critical reactions to the book," Newman observed, "are almost vehement, claiming Rich's perspective has been clouded by a rage that has led her into biased statements and a strident style. Others, who have read it with more sympathy, call it scholarly and well researched and insist that it should not be read ... for polemics." In a New York Times Book Review critique of the volume, Francine du Plessix Gray wrote: "It is vexing to see such a dedicated feminist playing the dangerous game of using the oppressor's tactics. Going from mythologization of history to remythologization of male and female character traits, Rich indulges in stereotypes throughout the book." Speaking of the same book but representative of the other half of the critics, Laura E. Casari commented in Prairie Schooner: In Of Woman Born, Rich "thoroughly documents the powerlessness of women in a patriarchal culture and vividly depicts its results."

Rich's second prose work, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978, furthers her feminist aesthetic. This volume contains one of Rich's most-noted essays, "When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-Vision," in which Rich clarifies the need for female self-definition. It was during this time, in 1976, that Rich also came out as a lesbian. In Blood, Bread and Poetry: Selected Prose, 1979-1986, Rich continues to explore issues of lesbianism while addressing such topics as racial identity and racism. Rich's fourth book of prose, What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics, contains meditations on politics, poetry, and poets. Focusing on such writers as Muriel Rukeyser, Audre Lorde, Wallace Stevens, and June Jordan, Rich emphasizes her belief that poetry is inevitably political and that "poetry can break open locked chambers of possibility, restore numbed zones to feeling, recharge desire."

In the verse collections Your Native Land, Your Life, Time's Power: Poems, 1985-1988, and An Atlas of the Difficult World: Poems, 1988-1991, Rich addresses new issues while continuing to develop feminist themes. The long sequence titled "Sources" in Your Native Land, Your Life is Rich's first major attempt to confront her Jewish heritage and the effects of the Holocaust on her life and work. In "Living Memory," a long poem in Time's Power, Rich faces the consequences of time and aging and also meditates on her bond to the American landscape. Marilyn Hacker pointed out in the Nation that this volume ranges "backward through personal and international history, geographically from southern California to Vermont to the Golan Heights. These texts present a variety of dramatis personae, and do not flinch at the knottiest moral conundrums."

An Atlas of the Difficult World focuses on such issues as poverty, the Persian Gulf War, and the exploitation of minorities and women. Rich's use of personal experience, first-person narratives, and language prompted critics to compare this collection to the works of Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman. Hudson Review critic Dick Allen observed: "Rich's book is truly a small atlas; but it is also the mature poetry of a writer who knows her own power, who speaks in the passionate, ambitious blending of the personal and the universal forever present in major work. She will be read and studied for centuries to come."

In 1997 at the age of seventy, Rich refused the National Medal for the Arts and brought the debate over government funding for the arts to national attention. In her letter to Jane Alexander of the National Endowment for the Arts, Rich explained her refusal of the award: "There is no simple formula for the relationship of art to justice. But I do know that art--in my own case the art of poetry--means nothing it if simply decorates the dinner table of power which holds it hostage." Rich's actions showed that time had not quelled her passion. Noted reviewer Traci Hukill in Metro Active, Rich's "criticism of a cynical administration that has blessed a swiftly widening gap in wealth and power is assurance that time has not mellowed her craving for justice."

However, upon publication of Midnight Salvage: Poems, 1995-1998, at least one critic saw a "more somberly reflective" Rich. As Adam Newey noted in the New Statesman: "The tide of anger so evident in earlier work has abated here." However, according to Dana Gioia in the San Francisco magazine, Rich remained driven by her quest for justice. "She is a human acetylene torch," Gioia wrote, "intent on searing through oppression and convention." Though he seems to find her perhaps too serious ("Rich is too busy denouncing human folly ever to stop and enjoy it."), Gioia asserted that "no other living poet ... has made such a profound impression on American intellectual life." Midnight Salvage is a collection of poems "with the spiritual pull of overcoming," noted Ace Boggess in the Adirondack Review. He explained that he received the book on the day before the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States. While the poems preceded the events of that day, Boggess saw a connection between the attacks and the poems. "I soon realized it was because the poems in this book contain something universal," Boggess contended, "a common reality revealed in the finite experiences of the one." Rafael Campo, in a review for the Progressive, "central to Rich's latest book, Midnight Salvage, is the quest for personal happiness--and the problem of defining 'happiness'--in an American society that continues to exploit its most defenseless citizens, and in the face of a larger world where contempt for human rights leads to nightmare. Her solution has as much to do with empathy as it does with revolution."

Rich continued to focus on social injustice and introspection in Fox: Poems, 1998-2000, a short volume of twenty-five poems. Critic Ruthann Robson felt that the collection was too short, writing in the Lambda Book Report that "the cumulative effect of this volume may be blunted by its brevity." Robson also asserted that the poems lacked Rich's usual wit and spark. However, Boggess was impressed more with the collection's complexity than its brevity. "Seeing the beautiful structure of 'Architecture' or grasping the prophetic feel of 'Ends of the Earth,' one gets drawn deeply into the poems in Fox the same way one gets drawn into the relationship crises of friends," Boggess wrote. "It can be a struggle at times and a pleasure at others, but one always learns something along the way and hopes to live long enough to see a conclusion."

In Arts of the Possible: Essays and Conversations, a return to prose, Rich once again examines her role as a feminist, Jewish, lesbian, and poet-activist, and encourages similar introspection in her readers. The book is a collection of eleven essays, four of which were previously published and included to give a sense of the progression of Rich's thoughts. According to B.A. St. Andrews in World Literature Today, the book "externalizes various debates within the passionate mind of Adrienne Rich." St. Andrews described Rich's writing in the book as "unflinching not because she redefines the Truth but because she serves it, not because she answers questions but because she raises them at all." Wendy Mnookin, writing in the Radcliffe Quarterly, summarized that "Rich explores the role of the artist and, indeed, anyone 'trying to live conscientiously.'" St. Andrews also noted that "Rich requires of us an ancient, humble, salubrious act: a rigorous examination of conscience with the aim of self-governance and self-improvement."

Rich next won the National Book Critics Circle Award for her collection The School among the Ruins: Poems, 2000-2004. The book of poems attempts to capture the myriad world events that have defined the beginning of the twenty-first century. Throughout her career, Rich has been exceedingly drawn away from formal verse, and the predominantly short prose poems in the volume are free verse meditations on "the displacement of exiles, the encroachment of modernity on human dignity, and the effects of America's war against terror on the stateside psyche," noted Meghan O'Rourke in Artforum. Although O'Rourke felt the collection veered too much into "rhetoric," Library Journal Diane Scharper stated that Rich's "poetry [is] achieved by juxtaposition and contrast." Donna Seaman, writing in Booklist, noted the snippets of cell-phone and television-news dialogue, concluding that Rich "get[s] the fractured timbre of the times just right."

At the age of seventy-eight, Rich released yet another collection of new poems, Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth: Poems, 2004-2006. The topics discussed therein include the Iraq War and Hurricane Katrina. Rich's themes address the need for love in a dehumanizing society, and the book was hailed by critics as yet another master work by one of America's greatest poets. Praising the book in the Chico News & Review, Kel Munger remarked that the "poems ... return always to the ghastly political reality of our times." A New Statesman contributor stated that while the work is "less thematically unified than previous books, Rich shows a grasp of language and form here that is still impressive." Commenting on the poem "Rereading the Dead Lecturer," which appears in the collection, Smoky Mountain News reviewer Jeff Minick found that "here Rich seems to say that both our ignorance, willed or unwilled, of the past does not in any way diminish the burdens of that past." Some critics noted that even at this advanced stage of her career, Rich continues to grow as an artist. John Freeman, writing in the San Francisco Chronicle commented that "no other poet in America is as impatient with her own facility as Adrienne Rich. Once a decade, she torches her style and uses it as mulch for new work." Freeman added: "Rich is so good at this one almost wishes she would do it a bit more flamboyantly. That's never been her style, though, nor will it ever be; she's too conscious of the way loss finally claims us all. It's why some of her love poems have their incredible daggerlike urgency."

Remarking further on Rich's continued poetic development, Bookslut Web site writer Elizabeth Bachner declared: "It is rare that someone in the 21st Century, someone with a fancy education and a radical bent and laurels to rest on, doesn't lose it as a poet ... There are so many dreadful directions Rich could've gone, following on wrong turns taken by so many other once-great twentieth century poets ... Instead, in her seventies, Adrienne Rich has written a magnetic, interesting masterwork." Noting Rich's changing poetics in a review of Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth for Jacket Online, Jill M. Neziri acknowledged that "Rich treats a diverse mix of contemporary issues, both public and private, that range from war to the role of memory in history to impermanence and aging. Never hesitating to reinvent herself as a poet, Rich does so here again, crafting poems characterized by sparse language that rely upon the layering of images as their primary tactic of presentation." Yet, unlike other critics, Neziri lamented this development: "For all the apparent skillfulness evidenced in this volume, Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth fails to deliver the emotional punch characteristic of Rich's earlier work. Rich's impulse to reinvent herself ultimately becomes her weakness as she avoids the intersections of the personal with the political that have fueled her poetry for so long." Despite this objection, Z Online reviewer Gregg Mosson called the collection "the latest dispatch from a great American poet who struggles to write moving human speech and penetrating thought in a dehumanizing market-dominated era." Mosson also noted that "Rich brings intellectual research into her poetry" and "a strong lyric voice to inflect her work with moving emotions" which is "crucial to her poetry's success. It also aligns with her message. In the last decade Rich consistently spotlighted the essential force of caring and love needed to rehabilitate dehumanized situations." Meredith Andrea, writing in Stride Online, observed that "if the collection does have a characteristic mode, it is that of montage--Rich creating a sense of expanded connectedness not by writing about connections, but by juxtaposing moments, glimpses, thoughts and feelings and leaving the reader to make the running. The technique appears open, non-prescriptive--but its conscious artfulness, even manipulation is not shirked from either." Andrea also stated that Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth "is not a book one can read, or review, and then put down and have done with. It is too reflective, too fierce, too engaging for that, and on so many levels. A live call, hungry for connection, it just won't stop resonating."

Through more than fifty years of public introspection and examination of society and self, Rich has chronicled her journey in poetry and prose. "I began as an American optimist," she commented in Credo of a Passionate Skeptic, "albeit a critical one, formed by our racial legacy and by the Vietnam War ... I became an American Skeptic, not as to the long search for justice and dignity, which is part of all human history, but in the light of my nation's leading role in demoralizing and destabilizing that search, here at home and around the world. Perhaps just such a passionate skepticism, neither cynical nor nihilistic, is the ground for continuing."

PERSONAL INFORMATION
Born May 16, 1929, Baltimore, MD; daughter of Arnold Rice (a physician) and Helen Elizabeth (a musician) Rich; married Alfred Haskell Conrad (an economist), June 26, 1953 (died, 1970); partner of Michelle Cliff (a writer and editor), beginning 1976; children: David, Paul, Jacob. Education: Radcliffe College, A.B. (cum laude), 1951. Memberships: PEN, Modern Language Association (honorary fellow, 1985--), National Writers Union, Poetry Society of America, American Academy of Arts and Letters, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Phi Beta Kappa. Died on March 27, 2012 at her home in Santa Cruz where she had been living in the past years, since 1980's.

AWARDS
Yale Series of Younger Poets Award, 1951, for A Change of World; Guggenheim fellowship, 1952, 1961; Ridgely Torrence Memorial Award, Poetry Society of America, 1955; Grace Thayer Bradley Award, Friends of Literature (Chicago, IL), 1956, for The Diamond Cutters and Other Poems; Phi Beta Kappa Poet, College of William and Mary, 1960, Swarthmore College, 1965, and Harvard University, 1966; National Institute of Arts and Letters Award for Poetry, 1961; Amy Lowell traveling fellowship, 1962; Bollingen Foundation translation grant, 1962; Bess Hokin Prize, Poetry magazine, 1963; Litt.D., Wheaton College, 1967; National Translation Center grant, 1968; Eunice Tietjens Memorial Prize, Poetry magazine, 1968; National Endowment for the Arts grant, 1970, for poems in American Literary Anthology: 3; Shelley Memorial Award, Poetry Society of America, 1971; Ingram Merrill Foundation grant, 1973- 74; National Book Award, 1974, for Diving into the Wreck: Poems, 1971-1972; National Medal of the Arts (declined), 1977; National Book Critics Circle Award in Poetry nomination, 1978, for The Dream of a Common Language: Poems, 1974-1977; Litt.D., Smith College, 1979; Fund for Human Dignity Award, National Gay Task Force, 1981; Los Angeles Times Book Prize nomination, 1982, for A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981; Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, Modern Poetry Association and American Council for the Arts, 1986; Brandeis University Creative Arts Medal in Poetry, 1987; Litt.D., College of Wooster, Ohio, 1988; National Poetry Association Award, 1989, for distinguished service to the art of poetry; Elmer Holmes Bobst Award in Arts and Letters, New York University Library, 1989; Bay Area Book Reviewers Award in Poetry, 1990, 1996; Litt.D., Harvard University, 1990; The Common Wealth Award in Literature, 1991; Robert Frost Silver Medal for Lifetime Achievement in Poetry, Poetry Society of America, 1992; Litt.D., Swarthmore College, 1992; William Whitehead Award of the Gay and Lesbian Publishing Triangle for Lifetime Achievement in Letters, 1992; Lambda Book Award in Lesbian Poetry, 1992, for An Atlas of the Difficult World: Poems, 1988-1991, 1996, for Dark Fields of the Republic, 1991-1995, and 2002, for Fox: Poems, 1998-2000; Lenore Marshall/ Nation Poetry Prize and Los Angeles Times Book Award, 1992, and Poets' Prize, 1993, all for An Atlas of the Difficult World, MacArthur Foundation fellowship, 1994; Tanning Prize of the Academy of American Poets, 1996; Wallace Stevens Award for proven mastery in the art of poetry, 1997; Lannan Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award, 1999; Lammy Award for lesbian poetry, Lambda Literary Foundation, 2002, for Fox; National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry, 2004, and San Francisco Poetry Center Book Award, 2006, both for The School among the Ruins: Poems, 2000-2004; Medal for Distinguished Contribution, National Book Foundation, 2006.

CAREER

Poet and writer. YM-YWHA Poetry Center, New York, NY, conductor of workshop, 1966-67; Columbia University, Graduate School of the Arts, New York, adjunct professor in writing division, 1967-69; City College of the City University of New York, lecturer in SEEK English program, 1968- 70, instructor in creative writing program, 1970-71, assistant professor of English, 1971-72, and 1974-75; Lucy Martin Donnelly fellow, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA, 1975; Douglass College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, professor of English, 1976-78; Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, A.D. White Professor-at-Large, 1982-85; Burgess Lecturer, Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena, CA, 1986; Stanford University, Stanford, CA, professor of English and feminist studies, 1986-92; National Writers' Voice Project, national director, 1992--. Visiting lecturer, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, 1967-69; Fannie Hurst Visiting Professor of Creative Literature, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, 1972-73; Clark Lecturer and distinguished visiting professor, Scripps College, Claremont, CA, 1983, 1984; visiting professor, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, 1984-96; Marjorie Kovler visiting fellow, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 1989. Member of advisory board, Boston Woman's Fund, National Writers Union, Sisterhood in Support of Sisters in South Africa and New Jewish Agenda.

WRITINGS
POETRY


* A Change of World, foreword by W.H. Auden, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1951.
* Poems, Oxford University Poetry Society (New York, NY), 1952.
* The Diamond Cutters and Other Poems, Harper (New York, NY), 1955.
* Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law: Poems, 1954-1962, Harper (New York, NY), 1963, revised edition, Norton (New York, NY), 1967.
* Necessities of Life, Norton (New York, NY), 1966.
* Selected Poems, Chatto & Windus (London, England), 1967.
* Leaflets: Poems, 1965-1968, Norton (New York, NY), 1969.
* The Will to Change: Poems, 1968-1970, Norton (New York, NY), 1971.
* Diving into the Wreck: Poems, 1971-1972, Norton (New York, NY), 1973.
* Poems: Selected and New, 1950-1974, Norton (New York, NY), 1974.
* Adrienne Rich's Poetry: Texts of the Poems: The Poet on Her Work: Reviews and Criticism, Norton (New York, NY), 1975.
* Twenty-one Love Poems, Effie's Press (Emeryville, CA), 1977.
* The Meaning of Our Love for Women Is What We Have Constantly to Expand, Out & Out Books (New York, NY), 1977.
* Pieces, Poythress Press (San Francisco, CA), 1977.
* The Dream of a Common Language: Poems, 1974-1977, Norton (New York, NY), 1978.
* A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981, Norton (New York, NY), 1981.
* Sources, Heyeck Press (Woodside, CA), 1983.
* The Fact of a Doorframe: Poems Selected and New, 1950-1984, Norton (New York, NY), 1984.
* Your Native Land, Your Life, Norton (New York, NY), 1986.
* Time's Power: Poems, 1985-1988, Norton (New York, NY), 1988.
* An Atlas of the Difficult World: Poems, 1988-1991, Norton (New York, NY), 1991.
* Collected Early Poems, 1950-1970, Norton (New York, NY), 1993.
* Dark Fields of the Republic, 1991-1995, Norton (New York, NY), 1995.
* Selected Poems, 1950-1995, Salmon Publishers (Knockeven, Ireland), 1996.
* Midnight Salvage: Poems, 1995-1998, Norton (New York, NY), 1999.
* Fox: Poems, 1998-2000, Norton (New York, NY), 2001.
* The School among the Ruins: Poems, 2000-2004, Norton (New York, NY), 2004.
* Telephone Ringing in the Labyrinth: Poems, 2004-2006, W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 2007.

PROSE

* Of Woman Born: Motherhood As Experience and Institution, Norton (New York, NY), 1976, 10th anniversary edition with a revised introduction, 1986.
* Women and Honor: Some Notes on Lying (pamphlet), Motheroot Publishing/Pittsburgh Women Writers (Pittsburgh, PA), 1977.
* On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose, 1966-1978, Norton (New York, NY), 1979.
* Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence (pamphlet), Antelope Publications (Denver, CO), 1980.
* Blood, Bread and Poetry: Selected Prose, 1979-1986, Norton (New York, NY), 1986.
* (With Susan Morland) Birth of the Age of Women, Wild Caret (Hereford, England), 1991.
* What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics, Norton (New York, NY), 1993.
* Arts of the Possible: Essays and Conversations, Norton (New York, NY), 2001.
* Poetry & Commitment: An Essay, W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 2007.
* A Human Eye: Essays on Art in Society, 1996-2008, W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 2009.

OTHER

* (Translator, and editor, with Aijaz Ahmad and William Stafford) Poems by Ghalib, Hudson Review (New York, NY), 1969.
* (Translator) Mark Insingel, Reflections, Red Dust (New York, NY), 1973.
* Adrienne Rich's Poetry and Prose: Poems, Prose, Reviews, and Criticism, W.W. Norton (New York, NY), 1993.

Also guest editor for Best American Poetry of 1996, Scribner, 1996.


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